In most of the countries with data, children from wealthier households are equally likely to experience violent discipline as those from poorer households. In contrast, in some resource-poor settings, especially where education systems have undergone rapid expansion, the strain on teachers resulting from the limited human and physical resources may lead to a greater use of corporal punishment in the classroom.
Researchers found that homes that use punitive discipline, such as punishment, lecturing, or restricting activities (that are otherwise not affecting academic studies) are associated with lower academic achievement compared to homes that have warm parent-child interactions and use inductive discipline as guidance.
This form of discipline is especially preferred in western countries over reprimanding, scolding, or spanking. Many pediatricians and positive discipline advocates even name this as an alternative to punishment because it is not seen as a punitive measure.
School systems set rules, and if students break these rules they are subject to discipline. These rules may, for example, define the expected standards of school uniform, punctuality, social conduct, and work ethic. The term "discipline" is applied to the punishment that is the consequence of breaking the rules. The aim of discipline is to set limits restricting certain behaviors or attitudes that are seen as harmful or against school policies, educational norms, school traditions, etc. The focus of discipline is shifting and alternative approaches are emerging due to notably high dropout rates, disproportionate punishment upon minority students, and other educational inequalities.
In the United States, many of the state and federal laws surrounding school discipline originate from zero-tolerance policies for student misconduct practiced by policy-makers from the 1980s and 1990s. With the increasing use of zero-tolerance policies, by 1997 the federal government was funding the use of police officers in schools, resulting in an increased use of discipline in schools across the country and an influx of students entering the juvenile justice system. By 2000, 41 states had laws in place requiring cases involving students who committed criminal violations in school, like drug possession, to be handled by law enforcement and juvenile courts, instead of the schools themselves. During this time, Black students accounted for over one-third of all corporal punishment and in-school and out-of-school suspensions, nearly one-third of all expulsions and school-related arrests, and over one-quarter of all referrals to law enforcement; rates around three times higher than that of white students.
An example of the varying racial disparities in discipline across U.S. counties and school districts is the different disciplinary approaches to solving truancy, "any intentional, unjustified, unauthorized, or illegal absence from compulsory education". The Los Angeles County District enacted punitive to decrease the rate of absenteeism occurring within the district's educational institutions. It piloted the Abolish Chronic Truancy (ACT) program that would discipline absenteeism through penal punishments for both students and their parental guardians. Punishments for parental guardians include legal prosecution with maximum penalty of a fine up to $2,500 per child and up to a year sentencing. For students, punishments may be prosecution in juvenile court with potential penalties including fines, probation, community service, and mandated attendance of a truancy education program. Socioeconomic factors--lack of transportation, acting as a caregiver for siblings, etc.-- that affect a student's attendance and likelihood of penal punishments disproportionately affects low-income black students.
Throughout the history of education, the most common means of maintaining discipline in schools was corporal punishment. While a child was in school, a teacher was expected to act as a substitute parent, with many forms of parental discipline or rewards open to them. This often meant that students were commonly chastised with the birch, cane, paddle, strap or yardstick if they did something wrong. Around 69 countries still use school corporal punishment.
In schools, restorative justice is an offshoot of the model used by some courts and law enforcement; it seeks to repair the harm that has been done by acknowledging the impact on the victim, community, and offender, accepting responsibility for the wrongdoing, and repairing the harm that was caused. Restorative practices can also include preventive measures designed to build skills and capacity in students as well as adults." Some examples of preventative measures in restorative practices might include teachers and students devising classroom expectations together or setting up community building in the classroom. Restorative justice also focuses on justice as needs and obligations, expands justice as conversations between the offender, victim and school, and recognizes accountability as understanding the impact of actions and repairing the harm. Traditional styles of discipline do not always work well for students across every cultural community. As an alternative to the normative approaches of corporal punishment, detention, counseling, suspension, and expulsion, restorative justice was established to give students a voice in their consequences, as well as an opportunity to make a positive contribution to their community.
But, Gershoff also cautions that her findings do not imply that all children who experience corporal punishment turn out to be aggressive or delinquent. A variety of situational factors, such as the parent/child relationship, can moderate the effects of corporal punishment. Furthermore, studying the true effects of corporal punishment requires drawing a boundary line between punishment and abuse. This is a difficult thing to do, especially when relying on parents' self-reports of their discipline tactics and interpretations of normative punishment.
In commentary published along with the Gershoff study, George W. Holden, PhD, of the University of Texas at Austin, writes that Gershoff's findings "reflect the growing body of evidence indicating that corporal punishment does no good and may even cause harm." Holden submits that the psychological community should not be advocating spanking as a discipline tool for parents.
Baumrind et al. suggest that those parents whose emotional make-up may cause them to cross the line between appropriate corporal punishment and physical abuse should be counseled not to use corporal punishment as a technique to discipline their children. But, that other parents could use mild to moderate corporal punishment effectively. "The fact that some parents punish excessively and unwisely is not an argument, however, for counseling all parents not to punish at all."
Once implemented in a family, corporal punishment can be a difficult cycle to break. Many parents who experienced corporal punishment in their childhood will default to that discipline strategy when faced with misbehavior from their kids, rather than trying other methods like redirection, timeouts, and the removal of privileges.
Discipline is defined as the practice of teaching others to obey rules or norms by using punishment to correct unwanted behaviors. In a classroom, a teacher uses discipline to ensure routine is maintained, school rules are enforced, and the students are in a safe learning environment. While the word discipline seems negative, the goal of using discipline is to teach students boundaries and limits to help students achieve personal and academic life goals.
When thinking about classroom discipline, we usually think about punishment. Instead, let's try and stop the negative behaviors before they start. To do this, we need to think about classroom management. What tools are you putting in place before the school year begins to manage your classroom? What types of routines or systems will you use to ensure a consistent and safe classroom environment? Let's start with expectations.
Discipline can feel like a negative chore every teacher must complete, but the goal of discipline is to ensure our students become respectful and successful members of society. Before we can discipline students, the students need to understand what is expected of them. Creating a set of rules or expectations and teaching routine are important parts of classroom management. For the students that act out, using body signals or verbal commands can help stop negative behavior while they occur. In more severe cases, contacting home or administration is sometimes necessary to ensure a safe and positive learning environment.
What is discipline? When most people hear the word they immediately envision punishment or some type of restraint and per one definition in Merriam-Webster they would be right. Webster defines discipline as control that is gained by requiring rules or orders to be obeyed and punishing bad behavior. This is not the intended meaning and in this case I prefer the Wikipedia definition which states: Discipline is when one uses reason to determine the best course of action regardless of one's desires.
The apparent seriousness of capital punishment, there has been an exceptional debate encompassing the issue. Rivals of capital punishment pronounce that it is savage and harsh thus the administration ought to get rid of it. Then again, its allies keep up that capital punishment is a fundamental type of discipline that ought to be utilized on the most horrible guilty parties in the public eye. The exceptionally captivated discussion on capital punishment has kept on existing for quite a long time. Moral hypotheses can be utilized to concoct an answer for this exceptionally dubious issue. Morals figure out what is the correct strategy in a given circumstance. Various strong moral hypotheses have been proposed by researchers and scholars throughout the long term. This paper will utilize one of the most broadly applied moral hypotheses, which is utilitarianism, to exhibit that capital punishment is for sure legitimized. 2b1af7f3a8