Thick and Thin blood smear preparation was done on one slide, air-dried, fixed with methanol (thin blood smears) and stained for 10 min with 10% Giemsa. Thick blood films were examined immediately under a light microscope (1000× magnification) by clinical staff in the field as per routine malaria diagnosis. Plasmodium density obtained from thick smear analysis was interpreted as the parasite number detected per 500 white blood cells (WBCs) and was converted into the parasite number/ml of blood presuming a WBC count of 8000 WBCs/μL of blood . If no parasites were detected after 500 WBCs were counted, the thick blood smear was classified as negative. The blood smears were re-read in the field by an expert microscopist, of skill level 1 or 2 following the WHO competency assessment protocol, to confirm the result. All microscopists were blinded from the LAMP results. Thin blood smears were used for determination of the parasite species via counting the number of parasites detected per 5000 RBCs.
An immature female of a new species was first found during speleobiological research in the cave Biokovka, Golubinjak, Mt Biokovo, Croatia in September 2007, by the Croatian speleobiologist Marko Lukić. This specimen was examined by the first author (R.L.) and provisionally placed in the genus Derossiella. Further intensive research of the deep subterranean habitats of Mt Biokovo was executed from 2015 to 2017 by members of the Croatian Biospeleological Society, DZRJ Ljubljana, and members of the SubBioLab (Bregović et al. 2015). During one of the visits to the Pretnerova jama, Lokva, Mt Biokovo, Croatia in 2015, biology student Ester Premate found a second immature female at an approximate depth of 120 m. Finally, in June 2017, a male was collected by the second author (T.D.), again in Biokovka, at a depth of ca 300 m. Subsequent examination of all three specimens, including male genitalia, confirmed that they belong to an undescribed species of the genus Derossiella, whose description is provided below.
Patronymic, dedicated to our dear friend Marko Lukić (Zagreb, Croatia), enthusiastic speleologist and speleobiologist, taxonomic specialist on subterranean Collembola, and collector of the first specimen of the new species.
Low dielectric constant F-doped silicon oxide films (SiO:F) can be prepared by adding fluorine source, like as CF4 to the conventional PECVD processes. We could obtain SiO:F films with dielectric constant as low as 2.6 from the reaction mixture of SiH4/N2 O/CF4. The structural changes of the oxides were sensitively detected by Raman spectroscopy. The three-fold ring and network structure of the silicon oxides were selectively decreased by adding fluorine into the film. These structural changes contribute to the decrease ionic polarization of the film, but it was not the major factor for the low dielectric constant. The addition of fluorine was very effective to eliminate the Si-OH in the film and the disappearance of the Si-OH was the key factor to obtain low dielectric constant. A kinetic analysis of the process was also performed to investigate the reaction mechanism. We focused on the effect of gas flow rate, i.e. the residence time of the precursors in the reactor, on growth rate and step coverage of SiO:F films. It revealed that there exists two species to form SiO:F films. One is the reactive species which contributes to increase the growth rate and the other one is the less reactive species which contributes to have uniform step coverage. The same approach was made on the PECVD process to produce low-k C:F films from C2F4, and we found ionic species is the main precursor to form C:F films.
Methods described in this chapter allow the preparation of individual nanowires, bundles of nanowires, or nanowire films. Vapour-phase techniques can lead to nanowires whose diameters are well controlled. However, the experimental set-up can be relatively sophisticated (use of ultra high vacuum, presence of an electric field) and vapour-phase techniques can not be applied to ionic precursors (non-volatile precursors). Solution-grown methods are much easy to implement and can be applied to large variety of precursors (neutral molecules, ionic species, compounds bearing a long-alkyl chain). Two-phase and dipping methods allow the formation of nanowires of TTF-based conductors exhibiting a narrow diameter distribution. Electrochemical techniques are the more promising methods. Indeed the application of a current is required to oxidize the majority of donor molecules. These electrochemical techniques require the use of a specific electrode on which the growth as nanowires can be initiated. Functionalised or nano-rough surfaces have then been developed. Nanowire films (made of randomly distributed nanowires) can be processed on a nano-rough intrinsic silicon electrode, used as an anode. Nanowire arrays (made of highly oriented nanowires) can be fabricated on electrodes functionalised by a nanoporous alumina membrane.
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