Principles Of Environmental Chemistry Books Pdf File
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This is unlike cleaning up pollution (also called remediation), which involves treating waste streams (end-of-the-pipe treatment) or cleanup of environmental spills and other releases. Remediation may include separating hazardous chemicals from other materials, then treating them so they are no longer hazardous or concentrating them for safe disposal. Most remediation activities do not involve green chemistry. Remediation removes hazardous materials from the environment; on the other hand, green chemistry keeps the hazardous materials out of the environment in the first place.
If a technology reduces or eliminates the hazardous chemicals used to clean up environmental contaminants, this technology would qualify as a green chemistry technology. One example is replacing a hazardous sorbent [chemical] used to capture mercury from the air for safe disposal with an effective, but nonhazardous sorbent. Using the nonhazardous sorbent means that the hazardous sorbent is never manufactured and so the remediation technology meets the definition of green chemistry.
This page highlights several green chemistry textbooks, manuals and booklets for educators. These learning materials are available for purchase through ACS or other publishers and are written for audiences ranging from undergraduate non-chemistry majors to chemistry professionals.
Description: This is an issues-based textbook that establishes basic chemical principles. Sustainability and green chemistry solutions are addressed along with issues such as global warming, alternate fuels, nutrition, and genetic engineering.
Description: This lab text describes the tools and strategies of green chemistry, and the lab experiments that allow investigation of organic chemistry concepts and techniques in environmentally-benign laboratory experiments. Students acquire the tools to assess the health and environmental impacts of chemical processes and the strategies to develop new processes that are less harmful to human health and the environment.
Description: Fourteen green chemistry experiments for undergrads are presented in this laboratory manual. Most of the experiments are green analogs of typical undergraduate organic chemistry experiments that highlight traditional chemical concepts with more environmentally friendly reactions and methods. (Also available in Spanish)
Description: This booklet offers a "how-to" introduction to green chemistry education for educators. An overview of the principles of green chemistry and the definition and importance of sustainability are presented along with several short essays by educators describing how they incorporated green chemistry into their classrooms.
Description: This technical textbook covers fundamentals and cutting-edge developments in a sustainability. Spans chemistry, engineering, and environmental science. Experts present the latest developments on topics ranging from green catalytic transformations to green nanoscience.
Description: Introductory booklet with activities, references, and resource materials on green chemistry. Instructional notes highlight the linkages between green chemistry and a regular chemistry curriculum. An accompanying CD-ROM contains PDF files of the activities and a PowerPoint presentation.
Description: Case studies of ten projects that received or were nominated for the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards. These examples are applicable in courses such as general chemistry, organic, inorganic, biochemistry, polymer, environmental, industrial, toxicology and chemistry for non-majors.
This wide-ranging series covers all areas of environmental chemistry, placing emphasis on both basic scientific and pollution-orientated aspects. It comprises a central core of text books, suitable for those taking courses in environmental sciences, ecology and chemistry, as well as more advanced texts (authored or edited) presenting current research topics of interest to graduate students, researchers and professional scientists. Books cover atmospheric chemistry, chemical sedimentology, freshwater chemistry, marine chemistry and soil chemistry.
Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. It should not be confused with green chemistry, which seeks to reduce potential pollution at its source. It can be defined as the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, soil, and water environments; and the effect of human activity and biological activity on these. Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes atmospheric, aquatic and soil chemistry, as well as heavily relying on analytical chemistry and being related to environmental and other areas of science.
Environmental chemists draw on a range of concepts from chemistry and various environmental sciences to assist in their study of what is happening to a chemical species in the environment. Important general concepts from chemistry include understanding chemical reactions and equations, solutions, units, sampling, and analytical techniques.
Environmental chemistry is used by the Environment Agency in England, Natural Resources Wales, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Association of Public Analysts, and other environmental agencies and research bodies around the world to detect and identify the nature and source of pollutants. These can include:
Common analytical techniques used for quantitative determinations in environmental chemistry include classical wet chemistry, such as gravimetric, titrimetric and electrochemical methods. More sophisticated approaches are used in the determination of trace metals and organic compounds. Metals are commonly measured by atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry: Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission (ICP-AES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric (ICP-MS) techniques. Organic compounds, including PAHs, are commonly measured also using mass spectrometric methods, such as Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Tandem Mass spectrometry MS/MS and High Resolution/Accurate Mass spectrometry HR/AM offer sub part per trillion detection. Non-MS methods using GCs and LCs having universal or specific detectors are still staples in the arsenal of available analytical tools.
Other parameters often measured in environmental chemistry are radiochemicals. These are pollutants which emit radioactive materials, such as alpha and beta particles, posing danger to human health and the environment. Particle counters and Scintillation counters are most commonly used for these measurements. Bioassays and immunoassays are utilized for toxicity evaluations of chemical effects on various organisms. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR is able to identify species of bacteria and other organisms through specific DNA and RNA gene isolation and amplification and is showing promise as a valuable technique for identifying environmental microbial contamination.
An example of how the Dashboard can help with chemical structure identification analyses is in the area of Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Non-Targeted Analysis (NTA). The use of NTA is increasingly being employed in environmental research to gather information on the real-world exposures to a broad range of chemicals potentially present in media such as wastewater , water [124, 139], dust , sediment and others. The goal of NTA in environmental research is not to attempt to confirm the presence of particular chemicals using standards, but rather to identify, with as much certainty as possible, the broadest range of chemicals detectable. Hence, NTA studies require cohesive workflows for candidate structure identification and prioritization , as well as large, accurately curated reference libraries of chemicals specific to the domain of environmental chemistry, such as provided by the DSSTox database [123, 141]. The Dashboard has been augmented with mass-search capabilities that make it a valuable resource for the NTA research community. Search functionality within the Dashboard enables users to perform queries based on a single monoisotopic mass or molecular formula (via the Advanced Search screen) or batches of many molecular formulae (via the Batch Search Screen). Mass and formula(e) searches of unidentified chemicals observed in NTA return not only candidate chemical structures, but also the uniquely linked substances and associated IDs, based on the search criteria. By rank-ordering the number of data sources of the returned results list, the most likely candidate structures are prioritized and returned to the user . A recent example is the use of data downloads from the dashboard (vide supra) used as a source of candidate structures and as a suspect list within MetFrag [143, 144].
As should be evident from this paper, data quality and curation are of foremost concern in the delivery of a web-based resource to serve environmental scientists and other potential users of the Dashboard. A great deal of attention is paid to data quality and curation within the DSSTox project, which has limited, to some extent, the degree of coverage of our chemistry database to the universe of chemicals of possible interest. However, at this time, it is the availability of data to be utilized in the Linked Data  and Semantic Web  that limits the overall impact of the resources underpinning the Dashboard. As described earlier, much of the Dashboard data is made available via the downloads page, and so is readily available to third party resources to consume. The DTXSID identifier has recently been accepted as a Wikidata Property  and this should help in exposing the Dashboard data to the expanding world of Big Data that can support chemical toxicity research . Towards this end, future work associated with the Dashboard and its underlying data includes exposing an associated SPARQL endpoint . 2b1af7f3a8